Autoflowering cannabis varieties automatically switch from vegetative growth to the flowering stage with age, as opposed to the ratio of light to dark hours required with photoperiod dependent/short-day strains. Many autoflowers will be ready to harvest in less than 10 weeks from seed. Dwarf varieties can have short stature while still giving decent yield. Conversely “super autos” can take over 100 days to mature and can reach over 6 feet tall.
Cannabidiol is a phytocannabinoid discovered in 1940. It is one of 113 identified cannabinoids in cannabis plants and accounts for up to 40% of the plant’s extract. In 2018, clinical research on cannabidiol included preliminary studies of anxiety, cognition, movement disorders, and pain.
Cannabidiolic Acid (CBDA)
CBDA (cannabidiolic acid) is one of many compounds produced by cannabis and hemp. Abundant in the live plants of CBD varieties, it converts to the better known cannabinoid CBD (cannabidiol) over time and when exposed to heat.
Cannabinoids are cannabis compounds that interact with our bodies to produce medical and recreational effects, from pain and stress relief to euphoria. You’ve likely heard of CBD and THC—these are the most widely known cannabinoids, and both originally stem from the precursor “mothership” cannabinoid known as CBGA (cannabigerolic acid).
Cannabinol (CBN) is a mildly psychoactive cannabinoid found only in trace amounts in Cannabis, and is mostly found in aged Cannabis. Pharmacologically relevant quantities are formed as a metabolite of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
Cannabichromene (CBC), also called cannabichrome, cannanbichromene, pentylcannabichromene or cannabinochromene, is one of the hundreds of cannabinoids found in the Cannabis plant, and is therefore a phytocannabinoid. CBC is non-intoxicating, so it doesn’t produce a euphoric high like THC. The reason it is non-intoxicating is because it binds poorly to CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the brain. But CBC does bind with other receptors in the body, such as the vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), both of which are linked to pain perception. When CBC activates these receptors, increased levels of the body’s natural endocannabinoids like anandamide are released.
Cannabidivarinic Acid (CBDVA)
Cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVa) is another minor cannabinoid found in cannabis sativa. It is the acidic version of cannabidivarin (CBDv). CBDVa is non-psychoactive, which means that it does not induce a “high” when it is taken. CBDVa is usually found in trace amounts within more common cannabis plants in North America. However, CBDVa is found at high levels within cannabis plants.
Cannabigerol, or CBG, is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid typically most abundant in low-THC and high-CBD cannabis strains, including hemp. Like THC, CBG reacts with the cannabinoid receptors in the brain. CBG, however, acts as a buffer to the psychoactivity of THC by working to alleviate the paranoia sometimes caused by higher levels of THC.
CBG works to fight inflammation, pain, nausea and works to slow the proliferation of cancer cells. Research has shown it also significantly reduces intraocular eye pressure caused by glaucoma. Strains high in CBG will be beneficial treating conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, and cancer.
Cannabigerolic Acid (CBGA)
A non-psychoactive cannabinoid, cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), is the precursor to THCA, CBDA, and CBCA cannabinoids in Cannabis. Performing a protective function for cannabis, CBGA is produced in the plant’s trichomes and triggers targeted plant cell necrosis for natural leaf pruning to allow the plant to maximize energy directed toward the flower.
Cannabidivarin (CBDV) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid that will not cause the euphoric feeling of being “high.” It is found more prevalently in indica strains, specifically landrace indica strains, and strains that are lower in tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Similarly to CBD, it has seven double bond isomers and 30 stereoisomers.
Center Pivots Method
Center-pivot irrigation (sometimes called central pivot irrigation), also called water-wheel and circle irrigation, is a method of crop irrigation in which equipment rotates around a pivot and crops are watered with sprinklers.
Removes stem and seed. Makes hemp perfect for extraction. Cleaning is required to remove contaminants such as weed seeds, plant parts and insects and it should be conducted as soon as possible after harvest. More importantly, cleaning removes cracked seeds resulting from combining.
Delta-8-THC is a powerful cannabinoid native to the cannabis flower, though typically found in only very small amounts as compared to Delta-9-THC, its psychotropic, well-known cannabinoid relative. Delta-8-THC grows in small amounts on cannabis plants naturally, but commercial extractors are using selective breeding and molecular isolation to extract concentrates that are abundant in Delta-8-THC and other rare cannabinoids.
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-9-THC) is the primary psychoactive ingredient [in marijuana]; depending on the particular plant, either THC or cannabidiol is the most abundant cannabinoid in marijuana. Delta-9-THC and Delta-8-THC are the only compounds in the marijuana plant that produce all the psychoactive effects of marijuana. Because Delta-9-THC is much more abundant than Delta-8-THC, the psychoactivity of marijuana has been attributed largely to the effects of Delta-9-THC.
Drip Irrigation Method
Drip irrigation is a technique in which water flows through a filter into special drip pipes, with emitters located at different spacing. Water is distributed through the emitters directly into the soil near the roots through a special slow-release device.
The most important part. Locks in quality. Hemp is combined at a moisture content of 10 to 20% moisture. The majority of the moisture comes from broken plant material, immature seeds and seeds enclosed in bracts. Dockage will range from 10 to 20%. The wetter the sample, the more urgent the drying process is. Drying should begin within hours of harvest. Heated air grain dryers and aeration can be used for drying the seed down.
The industry has accepted 10% moisture as dry. A safer level is 8 or 9%. Percent moisture requirement should be checked with contractor.
Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure. The most common example of germination is the sprouting of a seedling from a seed of an angiosperm or gymnosperm.
Germination is the process of seeds developing into new plants. First, environmental conditions must trigger the seed to grow. Usually, this is determined by how deep the seed is planted, water availability, and temperature. When water is plentiful, the seed fills with water in a process called imbibition.
Most seeds should keep for 2-3 years. Powerful varieties and fresh seeds commonly germinate in 3-5 days. When seeds have been stored refrigerated it can take up to 7 days for them to sprout. Soak the seed in water for a few hours then place them between layers of moist tissue in a covered tray.
Shucking and Bucking Hemp
Divides flower from fiber. Allows product to be extracted. If you’re not “cleaning” your biomass, by shucking and bucking in order to remove the stalks and stems that do not contain high CBD percentages, then you’re diluting the overall CBD percentage point. The lower the CBD percentage point of your hemp crop, the lower your profits.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the active chemical in cannabis and is one of the oldest hallucinogenic drugs known. There is evidence that cannabis extracts were used by the Chinese as a herbal remedy since the first century AD. Cannabis comes from the flowering tops and leaves of the hemp plant, Cannabis sativa. For centuries this plant has been widely cultivated around the world for its fibers, and indeed the word canvas, which is a material made from woven hemp fibers, takes its name from cannabis. However, cannabis is more commonly known as the source of the marijuana drug, although the word marijuana applies both to the whole plant, and to the resin from it.
Cannabis contains approximately 113 different psychoactive chemicals called cannabinoids, of which the most important one is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV, THV) is a homologue of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) having a propyl (3-carbon) side chain instead of a pentyl (5-carbon) group on the molecule, which makes it produce very different effects from THC.
Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid (THCA)
Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA, 2-COOH-THC; conjugate base tetrahydrocannabinolate) is a precursor of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active component of cannabis. THCA is found in variable quantities in fresh, undried cannabis, but is progressively decarboxylated to THC with drying, and especially under intense heating such as when cannabis is smoked or cooked into cannabis edibles